Slide presentations divide a coherent topic into fragments (individual slides). This makes it difficult for the audience to follow and tends to make speakers think in separate one minute sound bites, rather than developing a coherent scientific argument.

One effective way to minimize these problems is to write a short essay before starting to make slides. The essay should describe the scientific problems, why it is important, the experimental technique, the results, the limitations, etc.. It should include all the points you want to "prove" in the presentation. This essay is your guide to what to include in the presentation, what not to include, and the order of the slides.

Next week's tip will discuss how to use this essay to make your oral presentation more comprehensible and compelling.